China: Xi’an – Xian City Walls
Xian is the ancient capital of China and its old city is the most fortified city in China and one of the most fortified medieval cities in the world. The massive square wall goes on for a whopping 14km/9mi, and it’s scale defies imagination – the wall is 12m/40ft high, 14m/46ft wide at the top, and 18m/59ft wise at the base. There is every possible fortification type in here – walls, moat, gates, parapets, draw bridges, watchtowers, ramparts, etc. There are 4 giant watchtowers, 4 double gates, and rampart towers at intervals of 120m. Xian City Walls were built during the Ming dynasty between 1368-1644, and expanded and restored several times since. It’s a UNESCO World Heritage Site. You can ascend the walls and walk all around the square enclosed city l, which would take over 4 hours to complete.