Ukraine: Khotyn Fortress
The spectacular medieval fortress was built in its current in 1315 and improved around 1380s, but a fortress existed here as far back as 11th century – the high bank of the Dniester river being clearly a very strategic location. The fortress changed hands probably more then hundred times – first it was Ukrainian kings vs Moldovia in the 12-14th century, then Moldavia vs Ottomans, then Great Duchy of Lithuania against Ottomans, then came Russia vs Ottoman Turkey, then briefly independent Moldavia after WWI, the Bolshevik-led takeover and loss to Romania until 1940, when USSR took control of the western Ukraine, just to be lost a year later to Nazi and Romania. From WWII, it was part of Ukrainian SSR, and eventually independent Ukraine. The fortress is in fantastic condition and is absolutely spectacular with a great museum inside.